Вариант 4. СибГАУ
Дата сдачи: Май 2007
1. Поставьте вместо пропусков данные в скобках глаголы в нужную форму Present Perfect / Past Perfect / Present Perfect Continuous / Past Perfect Continuous u переведите на русский язык
2. Поставьте вместо пропусков данные в скобках глаголы в нужную форму Present Continuous / Simple Past / Present Perfect Continuous / Past Perfect Continuous и переведите текст устно.
3. Поставьте данные в скобках глаголы в нужную форму (1-7), дайте ответ по микроситуациям (8-11). Переведите предложения устно.
4. Передайте высказывания управляющего директора в косвенной речи.
5. Передайте в косвенной речи общие вопросы, используя слова данные в скобках.
6. Перефразируйте предложенные фразы в косвенной речи.
7. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в нужную форму. Переведите текст письменно на русский язык.
8. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в нужную форму. Переведите текст письменно на русский язык.
10. Внимательно прочитайте и переведите устно текст, выберите правильный заголовок из предложенных вариантов:
10 -А. Заполните пропуски предложенными словами и переведите полученные словосочетания.
10-В. Найдите в тексте слова и фразы, соответствующие следующим объяснениям, переведите на русский язык.
И. Отметьте следующие предложения как верные или неверные, основываясь на информации текста задания 10. Исправьте неверные предложения и запишите их.
12. Переведите письменно текст.
Go along and get along
The Japan Society's crash course on how to bridge the chasm between Japanese and American managers forces participants to examine their own cultural assumptions, as well to learn about the other side. Behavior which Americans consider trustworthy is often precisely that which Japanese associate with shifty character - and vice versa.
To Americans, people who pause before replying to a question are probably dissembling. They expect a trustworthy person to respond directly. The Japanese distrust such fluency. They are impressed by somebody who gives careful thought to a question before making a reply. Most Japanese are comfortable with periods of silence. Americans find silence awkward and like to plug any conversational gaps.
The cherished American characteristics of frankness and openness are also misunderstood. The Japanese think it is sensible, as well as polite, for a person to be discreet until he is sure that a business acquaintance will keep sensitive information confidential. An American who boasts "I'm own man" can expect to find his Japanese hosts anxiously counting the chopsticks after a business lunch. As Japanese see it, individualists are anti-social. Team players are sound.
(from The Economist)
13. Прочитайте внимательно статью, и сделайте нижеприведенные задания к тексту.
Management in America
Do It My Way
Cultural differences Between Japanese and American managers have presented the biggest obstacles to Japanese companies investing in America.
A seminar for Japanese executives working in America was attended by 25 men, nearly all of them in identical dark suits. l Despite the room's stifling heating system, they resolutely refused to remove their jackets. Their coffee break lasted exactly the scheduled ten minutes. They did not ask any question until after they had got to know one another a bit better at lunch. They were usually deferential and always polite.
A similar seminar for 25 Americans working for Japanese subsidiaries in America included eight women. Several of the man removed their jackets on entering the room. 2 A ten-minute coffee break stretched beyond 20 minutes. Participants asked questions and several aggressively contradicted what the speakers had to say.
According to Mr. Thomson Lifson of Harvard and Mr. Yoshihiro Tsurumi of New York's Baruch College - the two main speakers at both seminars - misunderstandings between Japanese and American managers are possible at jLearly every encounter. They can begin at the first recruiting interview. A big American company typically hires people to fill particular slots. Its bosses know that Americans are mobile people, who have a limited commitment to any particular employer or part of the country. 3 As a result, jobs are clearly defined and so are the skills needed to fill them. American firms hire and fire almost at will.
The assumptions (and the expectations) of the Japanese managers of Japanese subsidiaries in America could hardly be more different 4 They hire people more for the skills they will acquire after joining the company than for existing skills.
American managers rely heavily on number-packed memoranda and the like. 5 Status is critical, so a prestigious brand is appreciated best. Mr. Tsurumi, they find comical the sight of American managers in
adjacent offices exchanging memos.
Confronted with a dispute between middle managers, most Japanese superiors refuse to become involved, excepting the managers themselves to resolve the issue. The Americans conclude, wrongly, that their Japanese bosses are indecisive or incompetent. Japanese managers do not share the American belief that conflict is inevitable, and sometimes healthy. 6 They want to believe that employees form one big happy family.
(from The Economist)
13-А. Выпишите подчеркнутые слова и словосочетания, переведите их на русский язык.
13-В. Заполните пропуски нижеприведенными предложениями (\ - С). Одно предложение не относится к этому тексту.
13-С. Выразите согласие или несогласие на следующие утверждения:
1. This article is about American companies in Japan.
2. At one seminar the Japanese removed their jackets when they got hot.
3. The Japanese did not ask question until after lunch.
4. At another seminar, some of the Americans were not polite to the speakers.
5. Americans and Japanese are likely to misunderstand each other in any situation.
6. Americans employees are very loyal to their companies.
7. Japanese companies are likely to recruit less experienced employees.
8. Japanese rely less on meetings than the Americans.
9. The Japanese managers send more memos than their American counterparts.
10. Japanese managers solve problems without involving their bosses.