The history of university and college, 5 вариант, СФУ
Дата сдачи: Ноябрь 2012
The history of university and college
Universities originated in Europe during the eleventh century, but they were not the first in the world. Perhaps, the University of Al-Azhar founded in Cairo in 970 is one of the oldest still operating universities in the world.
European universities developed from monastery schools and their development took place so slowly that it is difficult to know the point at which they became universities. Many scholars believe that the oldest European university is the University of Bologna, Italy. It was founded in the late tenth century, but it had existed as a law school since 890. The University of Paris developed during the eleventh century. Many oilier universities appeared in Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
These first schools were founded largely to serve the professions. They provided the first unified teaching of law, medicine, and theology. The lessons were conducted in the Latin language, which the students were to speak even among themselves.
The oldest universities in Britain Oxford and Cambridge were founded in the Middle Ages. They have much in common and are, therefore, often spoken together, and are sometimes called collectively for convenience as Oxbridge. The word "college" originated later. There were no colleges in those early days and students' life was very different from what it is now. Students were of all ages and came from everywhere. When the students began to settle in Oxford in the 12th century they lived as they could, lodging in inns and with townsfolk, or grouping themselves together and renting a house for their use. The first college (Merton College) was founded in 1249 and it was associated only with the residence for students to lodge. Life in college was strict.
Students were not allowed to play games, to sing or dance, to hunt or even to fish. Later, however, colleges developed into complete educational institutions.
4. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What institution is responsible for education in Great Britain/ Russia?
2. At what age do children go to school in Great Britain/the Russia?
3. What pre-school institutions are there in Britain/the Russia?
4. At what age do boys and girls leave school in England/the Russia?
5. What does the "0"- or "A"-level of the General Certificate of Education depend on?
6. What educational institutions provide higher education in England/the USSR?
7. What is the first scientific degree in England?
8. How long does the course for the first degree last?
9. How long do the post-graduate courses for a master's degree last?
10. How many more years of research studies arc needed for Ph.D.?