250.00 руб


Железная дорога

Дата сдачи: Апрель 2012

Найдите в десятом абзаце предложение с независимым причастным оборотом. Переведите его.


1) In November 2000 there was established the Interagency Commission, which developed a project of "The Railway Transport Structural Reform Program". Recently presented for discussing, this project includes three phases of the industry structuring that will last up to 2010. First phase - 2001 to 2002, second - 2003 to 2005, and the third - 2005 to 2010. Now it is clear to everyone that government and economic functions (currently both realized by the MRS of Russia) must be separated as soon as possible. Hence it is need to establish an economic unit, which would be able to meet the challenge related with building up the competitive environment in the industry during next phases.

2) For the reform the railway industry can have four financial sources:

• cost reducing due to increasing the efficiency of the industry;

• state supporting;

• private investments;

• direct railway rate increasing.

3) At the first phase, it is more effective to establish a one and indivisible company - RAS " The Russian Railways". Then there will be examined issues of extracting from the company some individual units of the competitive environment. All changes, e.g. operation cfficiency, must be in favour of rolling stock owners who are not railway workers. More than a half of cars must be property neither the MRC nor the RRW. ( the MRC - the Ministry of the Railway Communications)

4) We often try to compare effectiveness of Russian railway transport with performance of American and European railway administrations and systems. Quite often mentioned figures are unlikely. Yet in reality, a service price (i.e. revenue rate per unit of completed task) at railways of Russia is very low. Working with profitability, incurring enormous social load (which, for example, U.S. railways not incur), we have prices 3.5 times as less as they do. Carriage by our rail is even lower than by China or India ones.

Though operation conditions in those countries and Russia – with our winter frost weather and changing it in summer hot one – are noticeable not the same.

5) So we should like to increase labour productivity and strive to the level of American railways. By the end of 2005 it will increase as much as two times.

6) Also we shall increase the rate of wagon turnover more than by a day (turnover must be less than seven days), increase a locomotive run up to 2000 km.

*7) Today the industry works in intricate conditions. Up to 30 per cent technical facilities outlived their lifetime. Along with it the wear-out of diesel locomotives is more than 70 per cent, elcctrical locomotives - 60 per cent, and motorcar sections - 50 per cent. Communications and blocking systems are physical aged and their wear-out is 56 per cent.

8) Elefctrification and power supply system wearing-out is more than 51 per cent. There are track facilities; their wearing-out is up to two thirds of the lifetime. So railways have to provide more and more increasing flows of passenger and cargo traffic without increasing in rolling stock fleet and cutting down their operation quotas.

9) By this time, current native trunks system of traffic management and existing infrastructure do not allow to come on optimal performance characteristics to succeed self-supporting both operation costs and rolling stock. The same concerns to locomotive crews.

10) Thus, in new environment, an immediate task of the quality traffic management is increase of rolling stock and infrastructure productivity due to push aside from traffic technology all obstacles concerned with present department, railway line, and region bounds. 

Задать вопрос по работе